Beyond the standard 80 and 443 to handle web traffic, Android also needs 5222 (Jabber) and 5228 (allegedly Google Marketplace, but needed for a phone to fully connect to the network and have functioning Google Talk).
Mail is also likely needed too of course, with SMTP 25 and 995, POP 110 and 993, and IMAP 143 and 465. For some setups you may also need LDAP, 389 and 636. Exchange needs 135 and in some esoteric configurations, NNTP with 119 and 563.
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